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According to the data of WHO, the number of urogenital infections has been increased over the last years. In many cases urogenital infections are caused by contamination of Chlamydia, namely Chlamydia trachomatis.
Along with urogenital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis may also involve in pathogenic processes eyes, mouth cavity, lower respiratory tract, causing pneumonia. However, in more cases Chlamydia trachomatis affects in particular urogenital system, being the most widespread sexually transmitted disease.
The treatment of urogenital infection includes antibiotics therapy. Tetracyclines, macrolides and fluoroquinolones belong to the groups of choice in the treatment of chlamydia infection.
Tetracyclines are the broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against a wide variety of bacteria including gram-positive cocci (staphylococcus, streptococci), gram-positive bacilli (Listeria), gram negative cocci (M.catarrhalis.), gram-negative bacilli (Yersinia, brucella, H.influenzae, H.ducreyi, choleric virion), chlamydia, rickettsia and spirochete.
Tetracyclines exert bacteriostatic action against mentioned above microorganisms due to inhibiting of proteins biosynthesis.
Among all tetracycline antibiotics, Doxycycline is the most prescribed and used medication in the treatment of chlamydia infection. Doxycycline is usually available in the form of capsules containing 100mg of the active ingredient.
Currently there are new pharmaceuticals forms of Doxycycline (monohydrate salt in the form soluble tablets: Unidox Solutab) that increase solubility and absorption of the preparation.
Bioavailability of Doxycycline may reach 95%. Due to its lipophilic properties Doxycycline easily penetrates into organs and tissues where exhibits its therapeutic effect.
In one clinical trial Doxycycline was given to 47 patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. Clinical trial was carried only in adults (20-28 years). As Doxycycline is contradicted for pediatric use and during pregnancy and breastfeeding (lactation), it was not given to this category of people. Clinical manifestations have been shared in the following way:
Urethritis-15 patients, uretroprostatitis-5, cystitis-3, endicervitis-14, inflammation of the adnexa-7, vulvovaginits-1, conjunctivitis-2. It was established that all of these urogenital infections were caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The patients with uncomplicated chlamydia infection (urethritis, endocervicitis, vulvovaginits) were given 100 mg of Doxyxycline monohydrate 2 times a day within 10 days. In the case of development fungi infection related to Doxycycline application, all the patients were taking Natamycin (Pimafucin) 4 times a day within 10 days.
The course of treatment for patients with complicated forms of chlamydia infection endured 15-20 days. More than 87.2% of patients experienced significant improvements after the undergoing treatment course. The microbiological effect has reached 91,5%.
Regarding to the side effects that were observed while treatment:
- Gastrointestinal disturbances (dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain) and headache were observed in 3 patients (6,4%).
- Increased number of hepatic transaminase was identified in one patient.
The received data allows to confirm that Doxycycline monohydrate can be recommended as a drug of choice in the treatment of various clinical forms of urogenital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis, endicervicitis, inflammation of the adnexa, vulvovaginitis, conjunctivitis.
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